COVID-19 nasal vaccine bolsters immune response, drops transmission

By The Science Advisory Board staff writers

October 31, 2022 -- Yale University scientists have concocted a new nasal vaccine that strengthens immune responses to COVID-19 in previously vaccinated animals and reduces viral transmission, which may help prevent breakthrough infections of vaccinated individuals.

The "prime and spike" vaccine approach jumpstarts the immune response in the respiratory system as opposed to stimulating a broad-based immune response throughout the body like with intramuscular vaccines (Science, October 27, 2022).

The protection afforded by traditional vaccines tends to wane after about four months and leaves people susceptible to breakthrough infections but this new approach may prevent that by bolstering the immune response within the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract. This is where cells are first attacked by COVID-19 and therefore the body can respond to the virus more quickly by stopping it at its entry point.

The researchers delivered the nasal vaccine to both vaccinated and unvaccinated mice and found an increased immune system response in the respiratory tracks of vaccinated mice only. Mice that had not been previously vaccinated, and vaccinated mice that did not receive a nasal vaccine, died from infection. However, mice that received the intranasal spike booster were completely protected from death and disease.

In hamsters receiving the nasal vaccine, there was a decrease in duration and the total amount of viral shedding. The hamsters vaccinated with the prime and spike method were also found to have reduced viral loads when housed with infected, unvaccinated hamsters.

Lastly, the scientists found an increased breadth of immune response among the animals receiving the nasal vaccine, which indicates the approach could be effective against a broad spectrum of coronaviruses as well.

SARS-CoV-2 mimics could make COVID-19 vaccine research safer, quicker
Viruslike particles, molecular mimics that look and act like SARS-CoV-2 without being infectious, are providing new tools against COVID-19 -- the disease...
New antibody neutralizes all known SARS-CoV-2 variants: study
An antibody developed at Boston Children’s Hospital neutralizes all known SARS-CoV-2 variants, including omicron subvariants, which may inform the design...
Antibodies create broad SARS immune response: study
Scientists from Scripps Research have discovered certain antibodies are capable of immunity against many different SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as other...
Intranasal COVID-19 vaccine tops vaccine injection
Ohio researchers have discovered a new way of delivering the COVID-19 vaccine: up the nose. It could one day be incorporated into the existing measles-mumps-rubella...
Current COVID-19 boosters provide protections against serious infection: study
Despite the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic coronavirus, a new laboratory study conducted by a team of international researchers suggests current...

Copyright © 2022

Science Advisory Board on LinkedIn
Science Advisory Board on Facebook
Science Advisory Board on Twitter